AIR-21 Act

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AIR-21 bill

AIR-21 bill

Act Details

AIR-21 Act was, as a bill, a proposal (now, a piece of legislation) introduced on 1999-03-04 in the House of Commons and Senate respectively of the 106 United States Congress by E. G. (bud) Shuster in relation with: Access to airports, Accident prevention, Actions and defenses, Administrative fees, Administrative procedure, Administrative remedies, Advice and consent of the Senate, Aeronautics, Air bases, Air cargo, Air pollution control, Air quality, Air traffic, Air traffic controllers, Aircraft, Aircraft construction, Aircraft engines, Aircraft industry, Aircraft pilots, Airline employees, Airline passenger traffic, Airline rates, Airlines, Airmail service, Airports, Airspace (Law), Alaska, Alcoholism, Animals, Anniversaries, Appropriations, Arizona, Armed forces and national security, Army posts, Asphalt, Auditing, Authorization, Aviation agreements, Aviation insurance, Aviation policy, Aviation safety, Avionics, Balance of payments, Block grants, Bonds, Budget deficits, Budget surpluses, Business income tax, Business records, California, Charter airlines, Civil rights and liberties, minority issues, Civil rights enforcement, Collective bargaining in government, Colorado, Commemorations, Commerce, Commercial aircraft, Communication satellites, Competition, Competitive bidding, Computer networks, Computer programming, Computers and government, Conflict of interests, Congress, Congressional budget, Congressional investigations, Congressional oversight, Congressional reporting requirements, Construction costs, Consumer education, Cost accounting, Cost effectiveness, Counseling, Counterfeiting, Credit insurance, Crime and law enforcement, Criminal justice information, Curricula, Damages, Data banks, Deficit financing, Deficit reduction, Department of Defense, Department of Labor, Department of Transportation, Disabled, Disciplining of employees, Discrimination, Discrimination against the disabled, Discrimination in employment, Dismissal of employees, District of Columbia, Drug abuse, Drug testing, Drug traffic, Drugs and transportation workers, Easements, Economic development, Economics and public finance, Education, Electronic data interchange, Elementary and secondary education, Emblems, Emergency communication systems, Emergency management, Employee training, Energy, Environmental assessment, Environmental protection, Europe, European Union, Executive reorganization, Explosives, Families, Family services, Federal advisory bodies, Federal aid to transportation, Federal budgets, Federal employees, Federal mandates, Federal officials, Federally-guaranteed loans, Fees, Finance and financial sector, Fines (Penalties), Fire prevention, Foreign corporations, Foreign investments, Foreign trade and international finance, General aviation aircraft, Geography, Gifts, Government aircraft, Government and business, Government contractors, Government operations and politics, Government paperwork, Government procurement, Government publicity, Government service contracts, Government spending reductions, Government statistics, Government trust funds, Governmental investigations, Grievance procedures, Hawaii, Health, Helicopter transportation, Helicopters, High technology, Higher education, History, Housing and community development, Human engineering, Identification devices, Illinois, Income tax, Indexing (Economic policy), Indian lands, Industrial parks, Information services, Information technology, Infrastructure, Injunctions, Interest, Intermodal transportation, International affairs, International agencies, International cooperation, Jet aircraft, Joint ventures, Judicial review of administrative acts, Labor and employment, Land transfers, Land use, Landfills, Landing aids (Aeronautics), Language and languages, Law, Lease and rental services, Leases, Legal ethics, Legal fees, Liability (Law), Liability for aircraft accidents, Liability for marine accidents, Licenses, Lighting, Local service airlines, Louisiana, Maintenance and repair, Maps, Marine and coastal resources, fisheries, Maritime law, Marketing, Maryland, Materials, Mental health services, Metropolitan politics and government, Military aircraft, Military and naval supplies, Military aviation, Military base closures, Military base conversion, Military spare parts, Minorities, Motor vehicle pollution control, National parks, National recreation areas, Navigation (Aeronautics), Navigation satellites, Navigational aids, Navigational aids (Aeronautics), Nevada, New Mexico, New York City, Noise, Nonprofit organizations, Nontariff trade barriers, North Carolina, Occupational health and safety, Ocean, Off-budget expenditures, Ohio, Oil pollution control, Oregon, Personnel management, Personnel records, Postal rates and revenues, Presidential appointments, Prisoners, Private aviation, Public lands and natural resources, Public-private partnerships, Puerto Rico, Punitive damages, Real property tax, Recruiting of employees, Recycling of waste products, Regional planning, Reprogramming of appropriated funds, Rescue work, Restrictive trade practices, Right-of-way, Road construction, Salvage, School districts, Science, technology, communications, Security measures, Signs and symbols, Social welfare, Sound recording and reproducing, Space activities, Sparsely populated areas, Standards, Subcontractors, Surplus government property, Tax assessment, Tax credits, Taxation, Technological innovations, Technology assessment, Telephone, Torts, Tourism, Traffic congestion, Transport aircraft, Transportation and public works, Transportation and the disabled, Transportation engineering, Transportation of hazardous substances, Transportation planning, Transportation workers, Travel agents, United Kingdom, User charges, Virginia, War risk insurance, Washington State, Weather forecasting, West Virginia, Whistle blowing, Wilderness areas, Wildlife conservation, Wind shear, Witnesses, Wrongful death, Year 2000 computer problem.

AIR-21 Act became law (1) in the United States on 2000-04-05. It was referred to the following Committee(s): (2)

House Transportation and Infrastructure (HSPW)
sub Subcommittee on Aviation (sub 05)
House Budget (HSBU)
House Rules (HSRU)

E. G. (bud) Shuster, member of the US congress
E. G. (bud) Shuster, Republican, Representative from Pennsylvania, district 9

The proposal had the following cosponsors:

Spencer T. Bachus, Republican, Representative, from Alabama, district 6
Charles Foster Bass, Republican, Representative, from New Hampshire, district 2
Douglas Kent Bereuter, Republican, Representative, from Nebraska, district 1
Shelley Berkley, Representative, from Nevada, district 1
Earl Blumenauer, Democrat, Representative, from Oregon, district 3
Sherwood Louis Boehlert, Republican, Representative, from New York, district 23
Leonard L. Boswell, Democrat, Representative, from Iowa, district 3
Corrine Brown, Democrat, Representative, from Florida, district 3
William Lacy Clay, Democrat, Representative, from Missouri, district 1
John Cooksey, Republican, Representative, from Louisiana, district 5
Jerry Francis Costello, Democrat, Representative, from Illinois, district 12
Barbara L. Cubin, Republican, Representative
Elijah Eugene Cummings, Democrat, Representative, from Maryland, district 7
Patsy Ann (pat) Danner, Democrat, Representative, from Missouri, district 6
Peter Anthony Defazio, Democrat, Representative, from Oregon, district 4
Jim DeMint, Senator, from South Carolina, district 4
Jay W. Dickey, Republican, Representative, from Arkansas, district 4
John Taylor Doolittle, Republican, Representative, from California, district 4
John J. Duncan, Republican, Representative, from Tennessee, district 2
Vernon James Ehlers, Republican, Representative, from Michigan, district 3
Philip Sheridan English, Republican, Representative, from Pennsylvania, district 21
Lane Allen Evans, Democrat, Representative, from Illinois, district 17
Alcee Lamar Hastings, Democrat, Representative, from Florida, district 23
Rick Hill, Republican, Representative, from Montana
Thomas Timothy (tim) Holden, Democrat, Representative, from Pennsylvania, district 6
Johnny Isakson, Republican, Senator, from Georgia, district 6
Sue W. Kelly, Republican, Representative, from New York, district 19
Ronald Klink, Democrat, Representative, from Pennsylvania, district 4
Steven T. Kuykendall, Republican, Representative, from California, district 36
Ray H. Lahood, Republican, Representative, from Illinois, district 18
Nick Lampson, Representative, from Texas, district 9
Steven LaTourette, Representative, from Ohio, district 19
Barbara Lee, Democrat, Representative, from California, district 9
William Oliver Lipinski, Democrat, Representative, from Illinois, district 3
Juanita Millender-mcdonald, Democrat, Representative, from California, district 37
Gary G. Miller, Republican, Representative, from California, district 41
Jerry Moran, Republican, Senator, from Kansas, district 1
Eleanor Holmes Norton, Democrat, Delegate, from Washington DC
James Oberstar, Representative, from Minnesota, district 8
Solomon Ortiz, Representative, from Texas, district 27
Bill Pascrell, Representative, from New Jersey, district 8
Collin Clark Peterson, Democrat, Representative, from Minnesota, district 7
Owen Bradford Pickett, Democrat, Representative, from Virginia, district 2
Richard William Pombo, Republican, Representative, from California, district 11
John Francis (jack) Quinn, Republican, Representative, from New York, district 30
Nick Joe Rahall, Democrat, Representative, from West Virginia, district 3
Don Sherwood, Republican, Representative, from Pennsylvania, district 10
Ronnie Shows, Representative, from Mississippi, district 4
Mark Souder, Representative, from Indiana, district 4
Ellen Tauscher, Representative, from California, district 10
Wilbert Joseph (billy) Tauzin, Republican, Representative, from Louisiana, district 3
Gene Taylor, Representative, from Mississippi, district 5
Lee Raymond Terry, Republican, Representative, from Nebraska, district 2
James A. Traficant, Democrat, Representative, from Ohio, district 17

Act Overview

Text of the AIR-21 bill

Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century – Title I: Airport and Airway Improvements – Subtitle A: Funding – Amends Federal Aviation law to reauthorize through FY 2003: (1) the Airport Improvement Program (AIP); and (2) the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Facilities and Equipment Program. Earmarks specified amounts for: (1) the voluntary purchase and installation of universal access systems; (2) the Alaska National Air Space Interfacility Communications System; and (3) the implementation and use of upgrades to the current automated surface observation system-automated weather observing system (if the up-grade is successfully demonstrated). Directs the Administrator of the FAA to establish life-cycle cost estimates for any air traffic control modernization project whose costs equal or exceed $50 million.(Sec. 103) Amends the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 to authorize appropriations for FAA operations through FY 2003. Makes specified allocations including for: (1) wildlife hazard mitigation measures and management of the wildlife strike database of the FAA; and (2) a university consortium established to provide an air safety and security management certificate program.Authorizes appropriations for FY 2001 and thereafter for activities of the Office of Airline Information in the Bureau of Transportation Statistics of the Department of Transportation (DOT).(Sec. 104). Revises the apportionment of airport improvement fund amounts to sponsors of primary airports and reliever and nonprimary (but excluding primary) commercial service airports and to the States in any fiscal year in which the total amount made available for airport planning and development and noise compatibility planning projects is $3.2 billion or more (including cargo only airports in which the total amount for such projects is less than $3.2 billion).Authorizes the use of airport improvement funds apportioned to Alaska Puerto Rico or Hawaii for any of their public airports.Authorizes the Secretary of Transportation to permit the use of State highway specifications for airfield pavement construction using airport improvement funds at nonprimary airports with runways of a certain length and serving certain aircraft provided safety will not be negatively affected and the life of the pavement will not be shorter than it would be if constructed using FAA standards. Prohibits such airports from seeking airport improvement funds for runway rehabilitation or reconstruction of any airfield pavement constructed using State highway specifications for a period of ten years after construction is completed unless the Secretary determines that the rehabilitation or reconstruction is required for safety reasons. Authorizes the use of State-apportioned airport improvement funds for integrated airport system planning that encompasses one or more primary airports.Authorizes the use of the supplemental apportionment of airport improvement funds for Alaska for any of its public airports. Increases the apportionment for such airports in any fiscal year in which the total amount available for airport planning and development and noise compatibility planning projects is $3.2 billion or more.Increases the apportionment for airport improvement funds for airport noise compatibility programs.Repeals a certain limitation on the apportionment of airport improvement funds for commercial service airports in Alaska.(Sec. 105) Provides for an eligible agency to impose (in lieu of imposing the current passenger facility fee of $1 $2 or $3) a passenger facility fee of $4.00 or $4.50 on each airline passenger of a domestic or foreign air carrier boarding an aircraft at an airport the agency controls to finance an eligible airport-related project provided certain conditions are met. Authorizes the approval of an agency application to impose a fee of more than $3.00 for an eligible surface transportation or terminal project provided such agency has made adequate provision for financing the airside needs of the airport including runways taxiways aprons and aircraft gates.Revises provisions providing for the reduction of the apportionment of airport improvement fund amounts to a sponsor of an airport having at least .25 percent (and in certain cases more than .25 percent) of the total number of boardings each year in the United States and for which fees of $3.00 or less or more than $3.00 is imposed in the fiscal year.(Sec. 106) Authorizes appropriations from the Airport and Airway Trust Fund through FY 2003 for: (1) aviation investment programs; and (2) the FAA Operations account.(Sec. 107) Provides for the increase if any for FY 2001 and thereafter of airport improvement fund amounts for the FAA for airport planning and development and noise compatibility planning programs.(Sec. 108) Requires the Secretary to notify specified congressional committees of any proposed reprogramming of airport improvement funds.Subtitle B: Airport Development – Revises U.S. policies regarding aviation programs to encourage the funding and use of integrated in-pavement lighting systems for runways and taxiways and other runway and taxiway incursion prevention devices.(Sec. 121) Makes eligible for airport development project funds the installation of emergency call boxes closed circuit weather surveillance equipment for airports in Alaska windshear detection equipment and stainless steel adjustable lighting extensions at public airports.(Sec. 123) Repeals the pavement maintenance pilot program.Makes routine work to preserve and extend the useful life of runways taxiways and aprons at nonprimary airports eligible for airport development project funds.(Sec. 124) Directs the FAA Administrator to enter into a cooperative research and development (R&D) agreement to study and report to Congress the benefits of utilizing enhanced vision technologies to replace enhance or add to conventional airport approach and runway lighting systems. Treats such technologies as a navigation aid eligible for airport development projects funds.(Sec. 125) Requires the Secretary to provide public notice at least 30 days before modifying or waiving any aeronautical land use assurance or condition on the conveyance of land including surplus property.(Sec. 126) Declares that the Government's share of costs shall be not more than 90 percent for airport improvement projects funded under the State block grant program.(Sec. 127) Prohibits the Secretary from requiring an eligible agency to impose a passenger facility fee in order to obtain a letter of intent with respect to airport development projects.(Sec. 128) Provides that the lesser of $15 million or 20 percent of small airport grant funds be set-aside for each of the next four fiscal years to assist sponsors of airports (not located in Alaska and which serve aircraft designed for more than nine but less than 31 passenger seats) in meeting the safety terms in airport operating certificates. Requires the Secretary to notify the grant recipient that the source of the grant is from the small airport fund. Requires the Secretary to give priority consideration to airport development projects to support operations by turbine-powered aircraft (if the non-Federal share of project costs is at least 40 percent) when making small airport fund grants to sponsors of public-use airports.(Sec. 129) Authorizes the Secretary to use certain unobligated funds to make discretionary grants for airport planning and development and noise compatibility planning programs.(Sec. 130) Increases from 12 to 15 at any time the number of current or former military airports at any time that may receive airport improvement funds.Increases the amount of discretionary funds available to designated sponsors of current or former military airports to construct improve or repair airport terminal building facilities and airport surface parking lots fuel farms utilities hangars and air cargo terminals (50000 square feet or less).(Sec. 131) Directs the Secretary to establish a pilot program to contract for air traffic control services at Level I air traffic control towers that do not qualify for the Contract Tower Program. Sets forth specified program requirements. Authorizes appropriations.Authorizes the Secretary to provide grants to not more than two airport sponsors for the construction of a low-level activity visual flight rule (level 1) air traffic control tower. Specifies grant requirements. Limits to $1.1 million the Federal share of construction costs of an air traffic control tower.(Sec. 132) Authorizes the Secretary to approve not more than 20 projects in which airport improvement grant funds may be used for innovative financing techniques for development projects at airports that each have less than .25 percent of the total number of passenger boardings each year at all commercial service airports.(Sec. 133) Directs the Secretary to carry out an inherently low-emission airport vehicle pilot program which makes grants to the sponsors of not more than ten public-use airports eligible for airport development assistance. Makes a public-use airport eligible for such assistance if it is located in an air quality nonattainment area; although if there is a shortage of applicants from nonattainment areas allows the Secretary to consider applications from public-use airports that are not located in such areas. Directs the Secretary in selecting an applicant sponsor for a grant to give priority consideration to applicants that achieve the greatest air quality benefits measured by the amount of emission reduced per dollar of grant funds.(Sec. 134) Directs the Secretary to carry out not less than one project to test and evaluate innovative aviation security systems and related technology to improve security at U.S. public airports. Authorizes appropriations.(Sec. 135) Prohibits the collection of a passenger facility fee from a passenger: (1) on flights including flight segments between two or more points in Hawaii; or (2) in Alaska aboard an aircraft having a seating capacity of less than 60 passengers.Permits certain regulations to authorize a public agency to request waiver of a passenger facility fee for: (1) any class of domestic or foreign air carrier that enplanes not more than one percent of the total number of passengers enplaned annually at an airport; or (2) passengers enplaned on a flight to an airport with scheduled passenger service but fewer than 25000 passenger boardings each year and in a community with a population of less than 10000 and not connected by land to the National Highway System. Prohibits a State (or political subdivision) that is not the eligible agency from taxing regulating or prohibiting or otherwise attempting to control the imposition or collection of a passenger facility fee or the use of the revenue from such fee.Declares that an airport development project shall remain eligible for funding from the discretionary fund (subject to the availability of funds) even though the airport's status changes from a primary to a nonprimary airport or a commercial service airport to a noncommercial service airport.(Sec. 136) Requires any Federal executive branch department agency or instrumentality to grant priority to a request by a public agency (except another Federal executive branch department agency or instrumentality) for surplus property (with specified exceptions) for use at a public airport.(Sec. 137) Amends Federal aviation law to make it policy to encourage the development of intermodal connections on airport property between aeronautical and other transportation modes and systems to serve air transportation passengers and cargo efficiently and effectively and promote economic development. Makes eligible for airport development project funds the constructing reconstructing or improving of an airport or purchase of nonrevenue generating capital equipment for an airport for the purpose of transferring passengers cargo or baggage between the aeronautical and ground transportation modes on airport property.(Sec. 138) Increases from nine to ten the number of qualified States that may be designated for each fiscal year to assume administrative responsibility for amounts available under the State block grant program (except amounts designated for use at primary airports).(Sec. 139) Authorizes the Administrator of the FAA to establish a pilot program under which design-build contracts may be used to carry out of up to seven projects at U.S. airports with airport improvement grants.Subtitle C: Miscellaneous – Treats as an eligible airport-related project with respect to which an eligible agency may impose a passenger facility fee: (1) in the case of a project to enable additional air service by an air carrier with less than 50 percent of the annual passenger boardings at an airport the construction with respect to gates and related areas at which passengers board or exit an aircraft of structural foundations and floor systems exterior building walls and load-bearing interior columns or walls windows door and roof systems and building utilities (including heating air conditioning ventilation plumbing and electrical service) and aircraft fueling facilities adjacent to such gates; and (2) the costs of terminal development at an airport that did not have more than .25 percent of the total U.S. annual passenger boardings and at which total passenger boardings declined by at least 16 percent between 1989 and 1997.(Sec. 152) Requires the Secretary to determine whether or not a public airport is a commercial service airport on the basis of the number of passenger boardings and type of air service at such airport when determining whether discretionary funds may be distributed to such commercial service airport.(Sec. 153) Extends the instrument landing system (ILS) program through FY 2002.(Sec. 154) Authorizes the Secretary to make noise compatibility grants to airport operators for projects to mitigate the effects of noise primarily caused by military aircraft.(Sec. 155) Prohibits the approval of a passenger facility fee or the award of an airport improvement grant for an eligible airport or an eligible agency from imposing such a fee with respect to an airport unless the airport or agency submits a competition plan which includes information on the availability of airport gates and related facilities gate-use requirements patterns of air service gate assignment policy and other airport-related information. Requires the Secretary to ensure that gates and other facilities are made available at fair and reasonable costs to air carriers at eligible airports where a “majority-in-interest clause” of a contract inhibits the ability of the local airport authority to provide or build new gates or other facilities.(Sec. 156) Requires the Administrator of the FAA in amending certain Federal regulations to: (1) consider the extent to which Alaska is not served by transportation modes other than aviation; and (2) establish appropriate regulatory distinctions.Directs the Administrator of the FAA and the Assistant Administrator of the National Weather Service to continue to develop and implement a “mike-in-hand” weather observation program in Alaska in which FAA National Weather Service or other Federal or State employees provide near-real time aviation weather information via radio to pilots who request it.(Sec. 157) Directs the FAA Administrator to study and report to Congress on the long term physical performance safety implications and environmental benefits of using recycled materials (including recycled pavements waste materials and byproducts) in aviation pavement. Authorizes appropriations.(Sec. 158) Authorizes the Secretary to obligate airport improvement funds and amounts from the Airport and Airway Trust Fund for any project to construct a new runway at an international airport.(Sec. 159) Directs the Secretary to announce the making of airport planning and development and noise compatibility planning grants in a timely fashion.(Sec. 160) Directs the Administrator to evaluate and report to specified congressional committees on options for improving the quality of information available to the FAA on airfield pavement conditions for airports that are a part of the national air transportation system.(Sec. 161) Directs the Secretary to report to specified congressional committees on FAA efforts to implement capacity enhancements such as precision runway monitoring systems.(Sec. 162) Sets forth provisions requiring discretionary funding to be used for higher priority airport improvement projects.Title II: Airline Service Improvements – Subtitle A: Small Communities – Directs the Secretary in carrying out aviation policy to consider ensuring that consumers in all regions of the United States including those in small communities and rural and remote areas have access to affordable regularly scheduled air service.(Sec. 202) Waives the State and local contribution requirement with respect to the compensation of an air carrier providing air service to certain noneligible places.(Sec. 203) Directs the Secretary to establish a pilot program for improving air carrier service to airports not receiving sufficient air carrier service. Earmarks specified funds for: (1) air carriers to subsidize service to and from an underserved airport (not to exceed three years); (2) underserved airports to obtain service to and from an underserved airport; and (3) underserved airports to implement other appropriate measures to improve air service both in terms of costs and availability to consumers. Authorizes appropriations for FY 2002 and 2003. Directs the Secretary to designate an airport as an Air Service Development Zone and work with the surrounding community to attract business develop land use options for the area and provide data while working with the Department of Commerce and other agencies.(Sec. 204) Authorizes the Secretary if it is determined that extraordinary circumstances jeopardize essential air service from a subsidized essential air service community to and from an essential airport facility to require an air carrier with more than 60 percent of the total annual enplanements at an essential airport facility to enable another air carrier to provide essential air service to such community.(Sec. 205) Authorizes the Secretary to provide airport improvement assistance to small community air service airports located within 70 highway miles of a hub airport if the most commonly used highway route between the airport and the hub airport exceeds 70 miles.(Sec. 206) Requires the Secretary to: (1) analyze the difficulties faced by smaller communities in retaining essential air service; and (2) develop a plan to facilitate the retention of such service.(Sec. 207) Directs the Secretary to review the marketing practices of air carriers that may inhibit the availability of quality affordable air transportation services to small- and medium-sized communities.(Sec. 209) Authorizes appropriations for each fiscal year to carry out the essential air service program. Sets forth limits on adjustments to service levels.(Sec. 210) Authorizes the Secretary to provide through one or more lenders guaranteed loans (including the extension of credit) to commuter air carriers (maximum seating capacity of 75 or less) for the purchase of regional jet aircraft which are to be used to provide service to underserved markets. Outlines loan conditions and limitations including that: (1) the maximum amount guaranteed on a loan or extended on credit shall be no more than 50 percent or $100 million; (2) such aircraft comply with certain Federal noise-level requirements; and (3) the air carrier agrees that the purchased aircraft be used to provide service to an underserved market. Authorizes the Secretary to make use of federal facilities and assistance in carrying out the incentive program. Authorizes appropriations through 2004.Terminates the Secretary's program authority five years after enactment of this Act.Subtitle B: Airline Customer Service – Amends Federal aviation law to make it an unfair or deceptive practice for any air carrier foreign air carrier or ticket agent utilizing electronically transmitted tickets (E-tickets) for air transportation to fail to notify the purchaser of the termination of such ticket.(Sec. 222) Increases the maximum civil penalty for violations of aviation consumer protection laws.(Sec. 223) Authorizes appropriations through FY 2003 for the enforcement of air travelers rights under airline consumer protection laws.(Sec. 224) Requires each air carrier that is a member of the Air Transport Association and that has entered into the voluntary customer service commitments established by the Association on June 17 1999 to provide a copy of its individual customer service plan to the Secretary. Requires specified reports.(Sec. 225) Directs the Secretary to initiate a rulemaking to increase the domestic baggage liability limit of air carriers for lost or damaged baggage of airline customers.(Sec. 226) Directs the Comptroller General to study the potential effects on aviation consumers including the impact on fares and service to small communities of a requirement that air carriers permit a ticketed passenger to use a portion of a multiple-stop or round-trip air fare for transportation independent of any other portion without penalty. Requires a specified report.(Sec. 227) Requires the Secretary to modify certain Federal regulations relating to airline service quality performance reports to disclose more fully to the public the nature and source of delays and cancellations experienced by air travelers.(Sec. 228) Establishes the National Commission to Ensure Consumer Information and Choice in the Airline Industry. Sets forth the duties of the Commission including to study: (1) whether the financial condition of travel agents is declining and if so the effect that it will have on consumers; and (2) whether there are impediments to information regarding the services and products offered by the airline industry and if so the effects they have on travel agents Internet-based distributors and consumers.Subtitle C: Competition – Amends Federal aviation law to set forth changes in and phase-out of slot (landing and take-off rights at an airport) requirements at specified airports. Sets forth certain perimeter rule requirements with respect to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport.Title III: FAA Management Reform – Provides that the Secretary (instead of as currently the President with the consent of the Senate) shall make subsequent appointments of Federal Aviation Management Advisory Council members. Revises member qualifications certain prohibitions on members term limits and requirements for the filling of vacancies and the removal of members.(Sec. 302) Requires the Council to have an air traffic services subcommittee which shall oversee the administration management conduct direction and supervision of the air traffic control system.(Sec. 303) Provides for the appointment by the FAA Administrator with the approval of the Air Traffic Services Subcommittee of a Chief Operating Officer for the air traffic control system.(Sec. 304) Directs the Secretary to carry out a pilot program to improve aviation safety and enhance the mobility of the Nation's air transportation system by encouraging non-Federal investment in critical air traffic control facilities and equipment.(Sec. 305) Prohibits the FAA Administrator from issuing a proposed or final regulation that is likely to result in the expenditure by State local and tribal governments or by the private sector of $250 million (currently $100 million) or more in aggregate (adjusted annually for inflation) or any regulation which is significant unless the Secretary approves the issuance of the regulation in advance.(Sec. 307) Directs the Administrator of the FAA to develop and implement a personnel and acquisition management system for the FAA that provides at a minimum for greater flexibility in the hiring training compensation and location of personnel and for more timely and cost-effective acquisitions of equipment and materials.(Sec. 308) Sets forth provisions giving FAA employees the right to contest adverse personnel actions against them.(Sec. 309) Directs the Inspector General to assess whether the overall method of calculating FAA costs and attributing such costs to the user is reasonable. Authorizes appropriations.(Sec. 310) Directs the Secretary to study and report to specified congressional committees on Federal environmental requirements related to the planning and approval of airport improvement projects.(Sec. 311) Directs the Administrator of the FAA to report to specified congressional committees on the cost allocation system currently under development by the FAA.(Sec. 312) Directs the Administrator of the FAA to report to Congress on plans to modernize the oceanic air traffic control system.Title IV: Family Assistance – Amends Federal transportation law to revise provisions prohibiting unsolicited communications concerning potential action for personal injury or wrongful death by an attorney to an individual injured in an accident involving a domestic air carrier before the 45th day (currently 30th day) following the accident to provide that such prohibition include accidents involving a foreign air carrier in the United States. Authorizes the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) to bring a civil action in a district court for violations of this title.(Sec. 401) Prohibits a State or political subdivision from preventing nonprofit organization employees with experience in disasters and post-trauma communication with families from providing mental health and counseling services within the 30-day period after an accident. Includes within the definition of “passenger” with regard to assistance to families of passengers involved in aircraft accidents: (1) foreign air carrier employees aboard the aircraft; and (2) any other person aboard the aircraft without regard to whether the person paid for the transportation occupied a seat or held a reservation for the flight.(Sec. 402) Revises air carrier plans that provide assistance to the families of passengers involved in aircraft accidents to require them to include at a minimum an assurance that: (1) upon request of the family of a passenger the air carrier will inform the family of whether the passenger's name appeared on a preliminary passenger manifest for the flight involved in the accident; (2) the air carrier will provide adequate training to air carrier employees and agents to meet the needs of survivors and family members following an accident; and (3) in the event that the air carrier volunteers assistance to U.S. citizens within the United States in the case of an aircraft accident outside the United States involving major loss of life the air carrier will consult with the NTSB and the Department of State on the provision of such assistance.Declares that an air carrier shall not be liable for damages in any action brought in a Federal or State court arising out of the performance of an air carrier in providing information concerning a flight reservation.(Sec. 403) Makes similar changes to foreign air carrier plans.(Sec. 404) Amends the Death on the High Seas Act to declare that it shall not apply in commercial aviation accident cases where the death of a person is caused by a wrongful act neglect or default occurring on the high seas 12 nautical miles or closer to the shore of the United States in which case Federal and State law shall apply. Provides for the recovery of additional nonpecuniary compensation for the wrongful death of a person resulting from a commercial aviation accident if the death occurs on the high seas beyond 12 nautical miles from the shore of the United States. Prohibits the recovery of punitive damages.Title V: Safety – Makes applicable to other specified types of aircraft (currently exempted from them) including turbojet-powered aircraft certain requirements that commercial aircraft be outfitted with an emergency locator transmitter. (Continues to exempt from such requirements after January 1 2002 aircraft used in scheduled flights by scheduled air carriers holding certificates issued by the Secretary training operations conducted entirely within a 50-mile radius of the airport from which the training operations begin flight operations related to design and testing the manufacture preparation and delivery of aircraft research and development showing compliance with regulations crew training exhibition air racing or market surveys the aerial application of a substance on agricultural crops air transportation with a maximum payload capacity of more than 18000 pounds or capable of carrying only one individual.)(Sec. 502) Directs the FAA Administrator to require by regulation that collision avoidance equipment (TCAS-II) be installed on each cargo aircraft with a payload capacity in excess of 15000 kilograms.(Sec. 503) Prohibits a person from constructing or establishing a municipal solid waste landfill within six miles of a public airport that has received airport improvement grants and is primarily served by general aviation aircraft and regularly scheduled flights of aircraft designed for 60 passengers or less unless specified conditions are met. Sets forth a civil penalty for violation of this prohibition.(Sec. 504) Directs the FAA Administrator to conduct a rulemaking proceeding to require the safe disposition of life-limited parts removed from an aircraft. Sets forth civil penalties for violations of such requirements.(Sec. 505) Prohibits the Administrator of the FAA except for the facilitation of law enforcement from issuing a certificate to any person: (1) convicted of a violation of any Federal or State law relating to the installation production repair or sale of a counterfeit or falsely represented aviation part or material; or (2) subject to a controlling or ownership interest of an individual convicted of such violation. Directs the Administrator of the FAA to revoke any such certificates issued to convicted persons or persons who knowingly facilitate such a violation. Prohibits the employment of an individual convicted of counterfeit parts dealing to perform a function related to the procurement sale production or repair of a part or material or installation of a part into a civil aircraft.(Sec. 506) Aircraft Safety Act of 2000 – Amends the Federal criminal code to prohibit and set penalties for knowingly and with intent to defraud in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce: (1) falsifying or concealing a material fact making any materially fraudulent representation or making or using any materially false writing entry certification document record data plate label or electronic communication concerning any aircraft or space vehicle part; (2) exporting from or importing or introducing into the United States selling trading installing on or in any aircraft or space vehicle any part using or by means of a fraudulent representation document record certification depiction data plate label or electronic communication; or (3) attempting or conspiring to commit any such offense.Grants the U.S. district courts jurisdiction to prevent and restrain violations pending final determination of such a proceeding. Specifies that a final judgment rendered in favor of the United States shall stop the defendant from denying the essential allegations of the criminal offense in any subsequent civil proceeding brought by the United States.Sets forth provisions regarding forfeiture of property lack of preemption and applicability to conduct occurring outside the United States under specified circumstances.Makes violation of this Act a predicate to authorization for interception of wire oral or electronic communications.(Sec. 508) Amends the Pilot Records Improvement Act to require an employment investigation (including a criminal history check) in the case of passenger baggage or property screening at airports if the Administrator of the FAA decides it is necessary to ensure air transportation security.Declares that an air carrier does not need to obtain the employment records of an applicant pilot who has been employed by a branch of the U.S. armed forces the National Guard or reserve before allowing such individual to begin service as a pilot.Provides for electronic access to the employment records of FAA air pilots.(Sec. 509) Establishes criminal penalties for any individual who: (1) knowingly and willfully serves or attempts to serve as an airman without an airman's certificate; (2) knowingly and willfully employs for service or uses as an airman an individual who does not have such certificate; or (3) without an airman's certificate provides for the air transportation of a controlled substance.(Sec. 510) Directs the FAA Administrator to issue a notice of proposed rulemaking to develop procedures to protect air carriers and their employees from certain enforcement actions that are discovered as a result of voluntary reporting programs such as the Flight Operations Quality Assurance Program and the Aviation Safety Action Program.(Sec. 511) Subjects to a civil penalty of up to $25000 any individual who physically assaults (or threatens to assault) a member of the flight crew or cabin crew of a civil aircraft or any other individual on the aircraft or who takes any action that poses an imminent threat to the safety of the aircraft or other individuals on the aircraft.(Sec. 512) Authorizes the Attorney General to deputize State and local law enforcement officers having jurisdiction over airports as Deputy United States Marshals in order to enforce Federal security laws on board aircraft including laws relating to violent abusive or disruptive behavior by air passengers.(Sec. 513) Directs the FAA Administrator to report to specified congressional committees on FAA progress in implementing the air transportation oversight system.(Sec. 514) Makes certain engineered materials arresting systems eligible for airport improvement funds.(Sec. 515) Directs the Administrator of the FAA to solicit comments on the need for the installation of precision approach path indicators at airports.(Sec. 517) Directs the FAA Administrator to form a partnership with industry to develop a model program to improve the curriculum teaching methods and quality of instructors for training individuals who need certification as airframe and powerplant mechanics.(Sec. 519) Amends Federal transportation law to establish a whistleblower protection program for airline employees providing air safety information.Prohibits air carriers contractors and subcontractors from discharging or otherwise discriminating against an employee as to pay terms conditions or privileges of employment because the employee: (1) is about to provide or has provided to an employer or the Federal Government information relating to air safety; or (2) is about to file or has filed a proceeding or testified or otherwise participated in a proceeding relating to air safety.Sets forth a Department of Labor complaint procedure for persons who believe they have been discharged or discriminated against in violation of this Act. Provides for award of attorney's fees of up to $1000 to a prevailing employer for any such complaint found frivolous or brought in bad faith.Specifies civil penalties for violation of this Act.(Sec. 520) Directs the Administrator of the FAA to study and report to Congress on the number of persons working at airports who are injured or killed as a result of being struck by a moving vehicle while on an airport tarmac.Title VI: Transfer of Aeronautical Charting Activity – Transfers from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration all functions personnel and funds of the Office of Aeronautical Charting and Cartography to the FAA.Title VII: Miscellaneous Provisions – Amends Federal aviation safety law to define “public aircraft” to include aircraft owned by the U.S. armed forces or chartered to provide transportation to such forces under specified conditions. Declares that aircraft owned by the Government State or local government qualifies as a public aircraft except when used for commercial purposes or to carry an individual other than a crewmember or a qualified non-crewmember.(Sec. 702) Directs the National Transportation Safety Board to compare and report to Congress on the safety of public aircraft and civil aircraft.(Sec. 703) Prohibits release to anyone without the FAA Administrator's authorization of any offeror proposal received by the Administrator in response to a solicitation for a competitive procurement proposal.(Sec. 704) Directs the Administrator of the FAA to carry out a pilot program in FY 2001 through 2003 to test and evaluate the benefits of long-term contracts for the leasing of aviation equipment and facilities.(Sec. 706) Prohibits domestic (including interstate) air carriers and foreign air carriers from discriminating against an air passenger on the basis of race color national origin religion or sex. Prohibits foreign air carriers from discriminating against handicapped individuals. Provides a civil penalty for discrimination against handicapped individuals.Directs the Secretary to work with appropriate international organizations and the aviation authorities of other nations to establish higher standards if appropriate to accommodate handicapped air passengers particularly with respect to foreign air carriers that code share with domestic air carriers.(Sec. 708) Prohibits an individual from smoking in an aircraft in passenger interstate and intrastate air transportation. Requires air carriers and foreign air carriers to prohibit smoking in aircraft scheduled for passenger foreign air transportation.(Sec. 709) Defines major air carrier joint venture agreements as agreements with regard to code-sharing blocked-space arrangements long-term wet leases of a substantial number of aircraft or frequent flyer programs or any other cooperative working arrangement between two or more major air carriers that affects more than 15 percent of the total number of available seat miles offered by such carriers.(Sec. 710) Requires an air carrier to report monthly to the Secretary on incidents involving the loss injury or death of an animal during air transport provided by the air carrier. Requires the Secretary to work with air carriers to improve the training of their employees with respect to the air transport of animals.(Sec. 711) Extends through December 31 2003 the aviation war risk insurance program.(Sec. 712) Authorizes the FAA Administrator to make improvements to real property leased for an air navigation facility regardless of whether the cost of making such improvements exceeds the cost of leasing such property provided certain requirements are met.(Sec. 713) Directs the Administrator of the FAA to: (1) address the problems and concerns raised by the National Research Council in its report “The Future of Air Traffic Control” on air traffic control automation; and (2) work with representatives of the aviation industry and appropriate aviation programs associated with universities to develop specific training curricula to address critical safety problems including problems of pilots.(Sec. 714) Authorizes the FAA Administrator to enter into bilateral agreements with the aeronautical authorities of another country to exchange with them all or part of their respective safety oversight functions and duties with respect to certain domestic and foreign aircraft.(Sec. 715) Provides for the availability to the public of airman certificate records.(Sec. 716) Authorizes a person to file with the NTSB a petition for the review of an order of the Administrator revoking an airman's certificate that has become immediately effective due to the fact that an emergency exists.(Sec. 719) Directs the FAA Administrator to establish new fees for FAA services to any entity obtaining such services outside the United States (except no fee shall be imposed for production-certification related service performed outside the United States).(Sec. 721) Authorizes the operation of Stage 2 aircraft (effectively exempting it from Stage 3 noise requirements) to or from the 48 contiguous States on a nonrevenue basis to: (1) perform maintenance or preventive maintenance on certain aircraft; or (2) conduct certain operations (flights between Hawaii and the 48 contiguous States).Permits a person in specified circumstances to operate (after December 31 1999) a stage 2 aircraft in nonrevenue service through U.S. airspace or to or from an airport in the contiguous 48 States.(Sec. 723) Prohibits an air carrier which operates aircraft designed for more than nine passengers from providing charter air transportation for which the general public is provided in advance a schedule containing the departure location departure time and arrival location of flights to or from an airport that is not located in Alaska and that does not have an operating certificate.(Sec. 724) Directs the FAA Administrator to: (1) study and report to Congress on the appropriateness of allowing an airport a credit against its local share under the airport improvement program for agreeing to provide services to the Federal Emergency Management Agency or to a State or local agency in the event of an emergency; and (2) provide data to the National Academy of Sciences for a 12-month independent study of air quality in aircraft passenger cabins.(Sec. 726) Sets forth provisions with respect to: (1) certain standards to reduce noise levels in aircraft engines; (2) a demonstration project with regard to aircraft altitude over the Taos Pueblo and the Blue Lake Wilderness Area of Taos Pueblo New Mexico; (3) the hiring of additional personnel to eliminate backlog of pending equal employment opportunity complaints to the Department of Transportation including authorization of appropriations for FY 2001; (4) regulation of Alaska guide pilots; (5) establishment of an aircraft repair and maintenance advisory panel to review issues related to the use and oversight of aircraft and aviation component repair and maintenance facilities; (6) national airspace redesign; (7) the sale of Cincinnati-Municipal Blue Ash Airport; (8) Department of Defense sale of aircraft and aircraft parts to persons or entities that provide oil spill response services; (9) discriminatory practices by computer reservations systems outside of the United States; (10) rolling stock equipment; (11) certain airport noise studies; (12) alternative power sources for flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders; (13) development of a national policy and related procedures regarding the Terminal Automated Radar Display and Information System and sequencing for visual flight rule air traffic control towers; and (14) consideration of revoking the Concorde exemption held by British carriers to operate it in the United States.Title VIII: National Parks Air Tour Management – National Parks Air Tour Management Act of 2000 – Prohibits a commercial air tour operator from conducting commercial air tour operations over a national park or tribal lands except in accordance with this Act conditions prescribed for that operator by the FAA Administrator and any commercial air tour management plan for the park or tribal lands.(Sec. 803) Sets forth specified requirements with respect to: (1) the granting of authority to commercial air tour operators to conduct air tour operations over national parks or tribal lands with specified exceptions; and (2) establishment of commercial air tour management plans.Exempts from the requirements of this Act: (1) the Grand Canyon National Park or any Indian country within or abutting such park; and (2) the Lake Mead National Recreation Area (but solely as a transportation route for an air tour of the Grand Canyon).(Sec. 804) Requires the Administrator of the FAA to designate requirements for fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft in order from them to be considered as employing quiet aircraft technology for flights over the Grand Canyon.(Sec. 805) Directs the FAA Administrator and the Director of the National Park Service (Director) to establish jointly an advisory group to provide continuing advice and counsel with respect to the operation of commercial air tours over and near national parks.(Sec. 806) Prohibits commercial air tour operations over the Rocky Mountain National Park.(Sec. 807) Directs the FAA Administrator to report to Congress on the effects proposed overflight fees are likely to have on the commercial air tour industry.Directs the FAA Administrator and the Director to report jointly to Congress on the effectiveness of this Act in providing incentives for the development and use of quiet aircraft technology.Title IX: Federal Aviation Research Engineering and Development – Authorizes appropriations for FY 2000 through 2002 to the Secretary for certain aviation research and development (R&D) activities.(Sec. 902) Requires the national aviation research plan to: (1) identify the individual R&D projects in each funding category that are described in the annual budget request of the FAA; and (2) highlight R&D technology transfer activities that promote technology sharing among government industry and academia through the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980.Requires the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Administrator of the FAA to submit an integrated civil aviation research and development plan.(Sec. 903) Requires the Administrator of the FAA to make available through the Internet home page of the FAA abstracts relating to all research grants and awards made with funds authorized under this Act.Title X: Extension of Airport and Airway Trust Fund Expenditure Authority – Amends the Internal Revenue Code to extend the expenditure authority of the Airport and Airway Trust Fund through October 1 2003. Sets forth certain limits on transfers to the Fund.


No analysis (criticism, advocacy, etc.) about AIR-21 Act submitted yet.
Access to airports
Accident prevention
Actions and defenses
Administrative fees
Administrative procedure
Administrative remedies
Advice and consent of the Senate
Air bases
Air cargo
Air pollution control
Air quality
Air traffic
Air traffic controllers
Aircraft construction
Aircraft engines
Aircraft industry
Aircraft pilots
Airline employees
Airline passenger traffic
Airline rates
Airmail service
Airspace (Law)
Armed forces and national security
Army posts
Aviation agreements
Aviation insurance
Aviation policy
Aviation safety
Balance of payments
Block grants
Budget deficits
Budget surpluses
Business income tax
Business records
Charter airlines
Civil rights and liberties, minority issues
Civil rights enforcement
Collective bargaining in government
Commercial aircraft
Communication satellites
Competitive bidding
Computer networks
Computer programming
Computers and government
Conflict of interests
Congressional budget
Congressional investigations
Congressional oversight
Congressional reporting requirements
Construction costs
Consumer education
Cost accounting
Cost effectiveness
Credit insurance
Crime and law enforcement
Criminal justice information
Data banks
Deficit financing
Deficit reduction
Department of Defense
Department of Labor
Department of Transportation
Disciplining of employees
Discrimination against the disabled
Discrimination in employment
Dismissal of employees
District of Columbia
Drug abuse
Drug testing
Drug traffic
Drugs and transportation workers
Economic development
Economics and public finance
Electronic data interchange
Elementary and secondary education
Emergency communication systems
Emergency management
Employee training
Environmental assessment
Environmental protection
European Union
Executive reorganization
Family services
Federal advisory bodies
Federal aid to transportation
Federal budgets
Federal employees
Federal mandates
Federal officials
Federally-guaranteed loans
Finance and financial sector
Fines (Penalties)
Fire prevention
Foreign corporations
Foreign investments
Foreign trade and international finance
General aviation aircraft
Government aircraft
Government and business
Government contractors
Government operations and politics
Government paperwork
Government procurement
Government publicity
Government service contracts
Government spending reductions
Government statistics
Government trust funds
Governmental investigations
Grievance procedures
Helicopter transportation
High technology
Higher education
Housing and community development
Human engineering
Identification devices
Income tax
Indexing (Economic policy)
Indian lands
Industrial parks
Information services
Information technology
Intermodal transportation
International affairs
International agencies
International cooperation
Jet aircraft
Joint ventures
Judicial review of administrative acts
Labor and employment
Land transfers
Land use
Landing aids (Aeronautics)
Language and languages
Lease and rental services
Legal ethics
Legal fees
Liability (Law)
Liability for aircraft accidents
Liability for marine accidents
Local service airlines
Maintenance and repair
Marine and coastal resources, fisheries
Maritime law
Mental health services
Metropolitan politics and government
Military aircraft
Military and naval supplies
Military aviation
Military base closures
Military base conversion
Military spare parts
Motor vehicle pollution control
National parks
National recreation areas
Navigation (Aeronautics)
Navigation satellites
Navigational aids
Navigational aids (Aeronautics)
New Mexico
New York City
Nonprofit organizations
Nontariff trade barriers
North Carolina
Occupational health and safety
Off-budget expenditures
Oil pollution control
Personnel management
Personnel records
Postal rates and revenues
Presidential appointments
Private aviation
Public lands and natural resources
Public-private partnerships
Puerto Rico
Punitive damages
Real property tax
Recruiting of employees
Recycling of waste products
Regional planning
Reprogramming of appropriated funds
Rescue work
Restrictive trade practices
Road construction
School districts
Science, technology, communications
Security measures
Signs and symbols
Social welfare
Sound recording and reproducing
Space activities
Sparsely populated areas
Surplus government property
Tax assessment
Tax credits
Technological innovations
Technology assessment
Traffic congestion
Transport aircraft
Transportation and public works
Transportation and the disabled
Transportation engineering
Transportation of hazardous substances
Transportation planning
Transportation workers
Travel agents
United Kingdom
User charges
War risk insurance
Washington State
Weather forecasting
West Virginia
Whistle blowing
Wilderness areas
Wildlife conservation
Wind shear
Wrongful death
Year 2000 computer problem

Bill Notes

  • [Note 1] An Act (like AIR-21 bill) or a resolution cannot become a law in the United States until it has been approved (passed) in identical form by both the House of Representatives and the Senate, as well as signed by the President (but see (5)). If the two bodys of the Congress versions of a bill are not identical, one of the bodies might decide to take a further vote to adopt the bill (see more about the Congress process here). An Act may be pass in identical form with or without amendments and with or without conference. (see more about Enrollment).
  • [Note 2] Proposals are referred to committees for preliminary consideration, then debated, amended, and passed (or rejected) by the full House or Senate. To prevent endless shuttling of bills between the House and Senate, bills like AIR-21 bill are referred to joint committees made up of members of both houses.
  • [Note 3] For more information regarding this legislative proposal, go to THOMAS, select “Bill Number,” search on (AIR-21 bill)
  • [Note 4] To amend title 49, United States Code, to reauthorize programs of the Federal Aviation Administration, and for other purposes. The current official title of a bill is always present, assigned at introduction (for example, in this case, on 1999-03-04) and can be revised any time. This type of titles are sentences.
  • [Note 5] The Act is referred to the appropriate committee by the Speaker of any of the two Houses. Bills are placed on the calendar of the committee to which they have been assigned. See Assignment Process.
  • [Note 6] Regarding exceptions to President´s approval, a bill that is not signed (returned unsigned) by the President can still become law if at lest two thirds of each of the two bodys of the Congress votes to pass it, which is an infrequent case. See also Presidential Veto.
  • [Note 7] Legislative Proposal types can be: hr, hres, hjres, hconres, s, sres, sjres, sconres. An Act originating in the Senate is designated by the letter “S”, and a bill originating from the House of Representatives begins with “H.R.”, followed, in both cases, by its individual number which it retains throughout all its parliamentary process.
  • [Note 8] For information regarding related bill/s to AIR-21 bill, go to THOMAS.

Further Reading

  • “How our laws are made”, Edward F Willett; Jack Brooks, Washington, U.S. G.P.O.
  • “To make all laws : the Congress of the United States, 1789-1989”, James H Hutson- Washington, Library of Congress.
  • “Bills introduced and laws enacted: selected legislative statistics, 1947-1990”, Rozanne M Barry; Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.

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